新型冠状病毒,你真的了解吗?

浏览次数:2832      日期:2020-02-12 12:12:08

2020年1月30日晚,世界卫生组织(WHO)宣布,新型冠状病毒(SARS-CoV-2)疫情将构成国际关注的突发公共事件(PHEIC)。这次爆发的新型冠状病毒疫情之所以会被列为国际关注的公共卫生紧急事件,主要是因为中国内部肺炎感染者数量在持续增加,同时,目前已有多个国家出现肺炎疫情,而且确诊人数也有所增加。这一声明的发出意味着,与SARS-CoV-2疫情(COVID-19)疫情的搏斗不在仅仅是中国公民的战争,更是全球人民的战斗。那么新型冠状病毒究竟是什么?怎样传播?什么来源?及怎么治疗?这些都是我们需要了解的。在了解什么是新型冠状病毒之前,我们先了解下什么是冠状病毒。

什么是冠状病毒?

冠状病毒属于套式病毒目、冠状病毒科、冠状病毒属,是一类具有囊膜、基因组为线性单股正链的RNA病毒,是自然界广泛存在的一大类病毒。它不仅是普通感冒的主要病原体之一,更是几次严重疫情的罪魁祸首。2003年肆虐的严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒,以及前几年影响沙特阿拉伯、韩国等地的中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒,在分类上都是冠状病毒科冠状病毒属中的病毒。如Figure 1所示,冠状病毒呈球形,膜上有冠状突起,直径为75-160 nm,病毒基因组为连续的线性单链RNA,分子量通常为(5.5-6.1)x106

The Typical Structure of Coronavirus

Figure 1. The Typical Structure of Coronavirus

冠状病毒基因组依次编码刺突蛋白(S)、包膜蛋白、膜蛋白和核蛋白。其中,刺突蛋白是冠状病毒最重要的表面膜蛋白。

什么是新型冠状病毒?

新型冠状病毒是2019年在人体中发现的冠状病毒新毒株,起源于武汉,并于2020年1月12日被世界卫生组织命名为SARS-CoV-2。它与2003年的SARS冠状病毒(SARS CoV)均属于冠状病毒的β属。SARS-CoV-2与2003年"非典"SARS CoV比对,有约70%序列相似性,与MERS CoV有40%的序列相似性。

华美生物密切关注SARS-CoV-2的发展趋势,获取病毒基因序列后,我司迅速开发生产了SARS-CoV-2相关蛋白和抗体产品。产品涵盖了大肠杆菌、酵母、杆状病毒和哺乳动物细胞来源的Spike蛋白(S)和N蛋白(N),以满足科研、检测和制备SARS-CoV-2抗体需求。您可以单击以下按钮查看与SARS-CoV-2相关的完整产品。

The full list of SARS-CoV-2 related products

SARS-CoV-2是如何传播?

相关研究表明,新型冠状病毒可通过与眼、口和鼻粘膜中的ACE2相互作用进入人体。目前该病毒正在中国许多地方及其他国家中人与人之间传播。 1月30日,疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)确定了美国首例人际传播病例。目前SARS-CoV-2可能传播的途径包括:

  • 呼吸道飞沫传播:是新型冠状病毒主要的传播途径,同时也可以通过接触传播。手触摸的物品被含病毒的飞沫污染,病毒可能会经手进入口腔、鼻腔、眼睛等粘膜;
  • 空气传播:病毒携带者或感染者的喷嚏和咳嗽;
  • 消化系统:也就是常说的粪口传播,部分感染者的粪便中已发现病毒核酸。

感染SARS-CoV-2后症状有哪些?

如Figure 2所示,感染新冠状病毒后的主要症状包括:

  • 以发热、乏力和干咳为主要表现;
  • 鼻塞、流涕等上呼吸道症状少见;
  • 约半数患者多在一周后出现呼吸困难,严重者快速进展为急性呼吸窘迫综合症、脓毒症休克、难以纠正的代谢性酸中毒和凝血功能障碍。

值得注意的是重症、危重症患者病理过程中可为中低热,甚至无明显发热,部分患者起病症状轻微,可无发热,多在一周后恢复,多数患者预后良好,少数患者病情危重,甚至死亡。

The Sympotoms of SARS-CoV-2

Figure 2. The Sympotoms of SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2来源于何处?

目前,SARS-CoV-2的来源尚不清楚。有专家猜测,这次可能仍然和其他冠状病毒一样均来源于野生动物。冠状病毒通常来源于动物,如骆驼、小鸟和蝙蝠,通常不传染给人类。但是有时候,冠状病毒会发生突变,然后从动物传播给人类,进而发展成人传人,比如2003年SARS流行病。中国国家卫生委员会证实,已有15名医护人员被感染,表明该病毒可以在人与人之间传播。

读到这里,您可能会感到困惑,我应该担心宠物(例如狗和猫)携带SARS-CoV-2吗?这个目前并没有证据显示猫狗等宠物会感染、传播新型冠状病毒。但从卫生角度考虑,与宠物接触后,应用肥皂和水洗手。

如何防止SARS-CoV-2感染?

根据中疾控和世界卫生组织各方专家的观点,公众预防应注意以下四个方面:

一是勤洗手。包括在制备食品之前、期间和之后;咳嗽或打喷嚏后;照护病人时;饭前便后;手脏时;在处理动物或动物排泄物后,立刻用肥皂、含有酒精的洗手液和清水洗手。

二是主动防护。在自己咳嗽或打喷嚏时,应用纸巾或袖口或屈肘将口鼻完全遮住,并将用过的纸巾立刻扔进封闭式垃圾箱内,并洗手。易感人群应尽量避免去人群密集的公共场所,可佩戴口罩减少接触病原风险。避免在未加防护情况下与病人密切接触,避免触摸其眼、口、鼻。同时注意保持家庭和工作场所开窗通风,环境清洁。

三是避免密切接触。尽量避免在未加防护情况下与养殖或野生动物近距离接触;避免与生病的动物和变质的肉接触;避免与生鲜市场里的流浪动物、垃圾废水接触。

四是良好安全饮食习惯。将肉和蛋类彻底煮熟食用,处理生食和熟食之间要洗手,切菜板及刀具要分开。

关于SARS-CoV-2感染后的治疗,目前尚无特定治疗方法,大多数人会自行康复。所以,治疗主要是用药减轻症状,多休息。加湿器或热水淋浴可以帮助缓解喉咙痛和咳嗽。如果病情较轻,则应多喝水并休息。

虽然目前还没有针对新冠状病毒的疫苗,但从美国国立卫生研究院的研究人员处得到证实,疫苗正处于开发的初期阶段。计划在未来三个月内启动疫苗的1期临床试验。此外,研究人员还致力于收集病毒样本,旨在设计一种疗法来检测患者的免疫细胞和破坏病毒。

SARS-CoV-2 蛋白产品

Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-EP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-YP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-PDI-tagged
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-MP3325GMY SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell Tag-Free
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-YP3325GMYa4 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N),partial CSB-EP3325GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 E.coli C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
N Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N),Biotinylated CSB-EP3325GMY-B SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal MBP-tagged and C-terminal 6xHis-Avi-tagged
NSP3 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 3(nsp3),partial CSB-EP3398GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
NSP5 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 3C-like proteinase(NSP5) CSB-EP3389GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
Nsp9 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 9(nsp9) CSB-MP3388GND SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal hFC-Flag-tagged
Nsp9 Recombinant Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Non-structural protein 9(nsp9) CSB-EP3388GND SARS-CoV-2 E.coli C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-mFc-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1b1 SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Myc-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP3324GMY1 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (V367F), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M1) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (W436R), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M2) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (G476S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M4) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (V483A), partial CSB-MP3324GMY1(M5) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged
S (RBD) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial,Biotinylated CSB-MP3324GMY1-B SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal mFc-Avi-tagged
S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP3324GMYa4 SARS-CoV-2 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-sumostar-tagged
S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-MP3324GMY SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Flag-tagged
S (S1) Recombinant Human Novel Coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) (D614G), partial CSB-MP3324GMY(M1) SARS-CoV-2 Mammalian cell C-terminal 10xHis-tagged

SARS-CoV-2 抗体产品

Product Name Code Reactivity Species Tested Applications
N Antibody CSB-RA33255A0GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA
N Antibody CSB-RA33255A1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, WB, GICA
N Antibody CSB-RA33255A2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
N Antibody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33255D1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
N Antibody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33255C1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
N Antibody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33255B1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
S Antibody CSB-RA33245A0GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA
S Antibody CSB-RA33245A1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA, Neutralising
S Antibody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33245D1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
S Antibody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33245C1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
S Antibody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33245B1GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody CSB-RA33245A2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, GICA, Neutralising
SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, Biotin conjugated CSB-RA33245D2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, FITC conjugated CSB-RA33245C2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 RBD Nanobody, HRP conjugated CSB-RA33245B2GMY SARS-CoV-2 ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody Pair 1 CSB-EAP33245 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 1 CSB-EAP33255A1 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 2 CSB-EAP33255A2 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 3 CSB-EAP33255A3 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA
SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody Pair 4 CSB-EAP33255A4 SARS-CoV-2 S-ELISA

SARS-CoV-2 免疫抗体产品

Product Name Code Tested Applications Raised in
S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A0m GICA Mouse
S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A1m GICA Mouse
S Monoclonal Antibody CSB-MA33245A2m GICA Mouse
S Antibody CSB-PA33245YA01GMY GICA Rabbit
S Antibody CSB-PA33245YA11GMY GICA Rabbit
N Antibody CSB-PA33254A0Rb GICA Rabbit
N Antibody CSB-MA33255A0m GICA Mouse
N Antibody CSB-MA33255A1m GICA Mouse
N Antibody CSB-MA33255A2m GICA Mouse

SARS-CoV-2 试剂盒产品

Product Name Code Sample Types Assay Principle
SARS-CoV-2 S RBD Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL33241HU serum, plasma Qualitative
SARS-CoV-2 S RBD Ab (IgM) ELISA Kit CSB-EL33242HU serum, plasma Qualitative
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA Kit CSB-EL33243HU serum, plasma Qualitative
SARS-CoV-2 N Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL3325HU serum, plasma Qualitative
SARS-CoV-2 N/S1 Ab (IgG) ELISA Kit CSB-EL3326HU serum, plasma Qualitative

冠状病毒相关产品

蛋白相关产品
Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
HE Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Hemagglutinin-esterase(HE) CSB-YP323648BJK BCoV Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
N Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) CSB-EP320768BJK BCoV E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Orf1ab Recombinant Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus Orf1ab, partial CSB-EP2883GJE MERS-CoV E.coli Tag-Free
S Recombinant Human coronavirus OC43 Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP336163HIY HCoV-OC43 E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged
S Recombinant Human coronavirus OC43 Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-YP336163HIY HCoV-OC43 Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
S Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP333052BJO BCoV E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
S Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S), partial CSB-EP322803BJK BCoV E.coli N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
SARS-COV-RBD Recombinant Human SARS coronavirus Spike glycoprotein(S) ,partial CSB-MP348663HQE SARS-CoV Mammalian cell N-terminal 10xHis-tagged and C-terminal Myc-tagged
抗体相关产品
Product Name Code Species Reactivity Tested Applications
S Antibody CSB-PA333052LA01BJO Bovine coronavirus ELISA
S Antibody CSB-PA322803LA01BJK Bovine coronavirus ELISA, WB
S Antibody CSB-PA336163EA01HIY Human coronavirus OC43 ELISA

冠状病毒与宿主互作靶点产品

蛋白产品
Target Name Product Name Code Species Source Tag Info
ACE2 Recombinant Human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2),partial(Active) CSB-AP005671HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
ACE2 Recombinant Human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2),partial CSB-MP866317HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal hFc-tagged
CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-RP117574h Human E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-MP002831HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal FC-tagged
CD147 Recombinant Human Basigin(BSG),partial CSB-MP002831HUf3 Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-Myc-tagged
CTSB Recombinant Human Cathepsin B(CTSB),partial (Active) CSB-AP005381HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
CTSB Recombinant Human Cathepsin B(CTSB),partial CSB-EP006185HU1 Human E.coli N-terminal GST-tagged
DPP4 Recombinant Human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4(DPP4) CSB-CF007139HU Human in vitro E.coli expression system N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
NUP98 Recombinant Human Nuclear pore complex protein Nup98-Nup96(NUP98) ,partial CSB-MP016209HU Human Mammalian cell C-terminal hFC-tagged
TMPRSS2 Recombinant Human Transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2),partial CSB-EP023924HU Human E.coli N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
TMPRSS2 Recombinant Human Transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2),partial CSB-YP023924HU Human Yeast N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
抗体产品
Product Name Code Species Reactivity Tested Applications
ACE2 Antibody CSB-PA866317LA01HU Human ELISA, IHC, IF
ACE2 Antibody CSB-PA001150GA01HU Human, Mouse, Rat ELISA,WB
APN Antibody CSB-PA001827LA01HU Human, Mouse ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
APN Antibody CSB-PA001827GA01HU Human,Mouse,Rat ELISA,WB
CD147 antibody CSB-PA11759A0Rb Human ELISA, WB, IHC
CTSB Antibody CSB-PA06974A0Rb Human, Mouse ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
DPP4 Antibody CSB-PA06229A0Rb Human, Rat ELISA, WB, IHC, IF
DPP4 Antibody CSB-PA007139GA01HU Human,Mouse,Rat ELISA,WB,IHC
TMPRSS2 Antibody CSB-PA971239 Human ELISA,WB
ELISA Kit 产品
Product Name Code Sample Types Detection Range
Human ACE2 ELISA Kit CSB-E04489h serum, plasma, cell culture supernates 0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL
Human APN ELISA kit CSB-EL001827HU serum, plasma, tissue homogenates 31.25 pg/mL-2000 pg/mL
Human CD147 ELISA Kit CSB-E12994h serum, plasma 12.5 pg/mL-800 pg/mL
Human CTSB ELISA kit CSB-E13450h serum, plasma, tissue homogenates 0.312 ng/mL-20 ng/mL