Recombinant Human Pro-glucagon(GCG),partial

In Stock
  • 货号:
  • 规格:
  • 图片:
    • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
  • 其他:


  • 纯度:
    Greater than 85% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
  • 基因名:
  • Uniprot No.:
  • 别名:
    GCG; Glicentin related polypeptide; glicentin-related polypeptide; GLP-1; GLP-1(7-36); GLP-1(7-37); GLP-2; GLP1; GLP1; included; GLP2; GLP2; included; GLUC_HUMAN; Glucagon; Glucagon like peptide 1; glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon-like peptide 1; included; Glucagon-like peptide 2; Glucagon-like peptide 2; included; GRPP; OXM; OXY; preproglucagon
  • 种属:
    Homo sapiens (Human)
  • 蛋白长度:
  • 来源:
  • 分子量:
    30.4 kDa
  • 表达区域:
  • 氨基酸序列
    Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
  • 蛋白标签:
    N-terminal GST-tagged
  • 产品提供形式:
    Liquid or Lyophilized powder
    Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
  • 缓冲液:
    Tris-based buffer,50% glycerol
  • 储存条件:
    Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 保质期:
    The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
    Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
  • 货期:
    Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
    Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
  • 注意事项:
    Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
  • Datasheet & COA:
    Please contact us to get it.


  • 功能:
    Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.; FUNCTION
  • 基因功能参考文献:
    1. GPR119 is the oleoyl-lysophosphatidylinositol receptor that is required for GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine cells. PMID: 29883799
    2. RYGB increased circulating bile acids, ileal Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and mTORC1 signaling activity, as well as GLP-1 production in both mice and human subjects. Inhibition of ileal mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin significantly attenuated the stimulation of bile acid secretion, TGR5 expression and GLP-1 synthesis induced by RYGB in lean and diet-induced obese mice. PMID: 29859856
    3. Glucagon role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.[review] PMID: 29024725
    4. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of GLP-1 in the protection against oxidative damage and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. [review] PMID: 29271910
    5. Study concludes that in healthy subjects, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work. PMID: 28174344
    6. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID: 28202805
    7. The results demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin synergistically and additively activate vagal afferent neurons. PMID: 28624122
    8. DPP-4 activity and GLP-1total levels were higher in patients with microvascular complications associated with T2DM. Contrary to expectations, no negative correlation was seen between GLP-1 and DDP-4 levels. This result suggests the possible inefficacy of DDP-4 activity as a marker to predict in vivo degradation of endogenous GLP-1. PMID: 29061224
    9. Data suggest that cAMP acts as amplifier of insulin secretion triggered by Ca2+ elevation in beta-cells; both messengers are also positive modulators of glucagon release from alpha-cells, but in this case cAMP signaling may be the important regulator and Ca2+ signaling has a more permissive role. [REVIEW] PMID: 28466587
    10. This study provides evidence that, in HepG2 cells, GLP-1 may affect cholesterol homeostasis by regulating the expression of miR-758 and ABCA1. PMID: 29453982
    11. This study reports the transition dipole strengths and frequencies of the amyloid beta-sheet amide I mode for the aggregated proteins amyloid-beta1-40, calcitonin, alpha-synuclein, and glucagon. PMID: 28851219
    12. genetic association studies in population in China: Data confirm that an SNP in an intron of SLC47A1 (rs2289669) is associated with hypoglycemic response to metformin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; differential increases in basal GLP1 plasma levels are also related to this SNP. (SLC47A1 = solute carrier family 47 member 1; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide-1) PMID: 28321905
    13. GLP-2 augmented BRIN BD11 beta-cell proliferation, but was less efficacious in 1.1B4 cells. These data highlight the involvement of GLP-2 receptor signalling in the adaptations to pancreatic islet cell stress. PMID: 28746825
    14. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2) stimulates cancer myofibroblast proliferation, migration and invasion; GLP-2 acts indirectly on epithelial cells partly via increased Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) expression in myofibroblasts. PMID: 28363795
    15. Describe model, in which the release of GIP/GLP-1 is stimulated by glucose in the proximal small intestine, and no differences in the secretion dynamics between healthy individuals and patients with T2D are identified after taking differences in glucose profiles into account. PMID: 28374974
    16. the solvent exposure of the two Phe sites along the glucagon sequence was determined, showing that 4F-Phe6 was fully solvent exposed and 4F-Phe22 was only partially exposed PMID: 28508109
    17. Data suggest that dose/intensity-response relationships exist between exercise intensity and total plasma PYY levels, though the effects on total plasma GLP1 levels and hunger perceptions seem unclear. (PYY = peptide YY ; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1) PMID: 27721013
    18. GLP-2 could be considered an hormone causing positive energy balance, which, however has the role to mitigate the metabolic dysfunctions associated with hyper-adiposity. [review] PMID: 27664588
    19. Studies indicate that nutrient-induced glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was one of the best predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission after Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass (RYGB). PMID: 29040429
    20. Insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals is associated with raised fasting GLP-1 levels but reduced GLP-1 responses to meal stimulation. PMID: 29097626
    21. Age-dependent human beta cell proliferation induced by glucagon-like peptide 1 and calcineurin signaling PMID: 28920919
    22. Data suggest early peaks in glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon secretion/blood level together trigger exaggerated insulinotropic response (high insulin secretion/level) to eating and consequent hypoglycaemia in patients with postprandial hypoglycaemia as a postoperative complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes; this retrospective cohort study was conducted in London. PMID: 28855269
    23. A common variant, i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. PMID: 28750074
    24. Compared with the lean group, the obese group had significantly higher fasting and post-OGTT GIP levels, but similar fasting GLP-1 and significantly lower post-OGTT GLP-1 levels. PMID: 28655715
    25. Hemodialysis improves upper GI symptoms and gastric slow waves in CKD patients. An increase in ghrelin and a decrease in GLP-1 might be involved in the HD-induced improvement in gastric slow waves. PMID: 28566304
    26. Data suggest that, in obesity, serum levels of active GLP1 are down-regulated and serum levels of soluble DPP4 are up-regulated; DPP4 levels correlate negatively with active GLP-1 levels but are positively associated with insulin resistance; thus, DPP4 may be biomarker for insulin resistance. This study was conducted in Malaysia. (GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4) PMID: 28288852
    27. Insulin resistance, postprandial GLP-1 and adaptive immunity are the main predictors of NAFLD in a homogeneous population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID: 27134062
    28. Data suggest that laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) for morbid obesity improves insulin resistance after either fast or slow feeding/eating; these findings suggest a negligible contribution of anorexigenic gut peptides GLP1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and PYY (peptide YY) from intestinal L cells in response to LSG-induced weight loss. PMID: 27022941
    29. L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp's effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings. PMID: 27875537
    30. rs12104705 CC genotype associated with both general obesity and abdominal obesity in case of new-onset diabetes PMID: 27998387
    31. The effects of GLP-1-based therapies on blood glucose in type 2 diabetics are not mediated through microvascular responses. PMID: 27562916
    32. Endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. PMID: 26769912
    33. secretion of oxyntomodulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is significantly impaired. PMID: 27322465
    34. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Analogues Inhibit Proliferation and Increase Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells PMID: 28008585
    35. The GLP-1 secretion after 75 g OGTT was impaired in newly diagnosed T2DM patients, inversely proportional to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, and positively correlated with beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. PMID: 26739974
    36. GLP-1 secretion increased in response to inflammatory stimuli in humans, which was associated to parameters of glucose metabolism and best predicted by IL6. PMID: 26842302
    37. Among young and healthy adults, GLP-1 levels are strongly and independently related to body fat mass especially in men, but not body mass index or waist circumference. PMID: 25865948
    38. Glucagon circulates in patients without a pancreas and glucose stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract elicits significant hyperglucagonemia in these patients. PMID: 26672094
    39. There is minor contribution of endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to postprandial lipemia in obese men. PMID: 26752550
    40. Data suggest that endocrine responses differ between jejunal and gastric enteral feeding, with higher peak plasma CCK (cholecystokinin), PYY (peptide YY), and GLP-1/2 (glucagon-like peptides 1/2) concentrations being attained after jejunal feeding. PMID: 26762368
    41. Data suggest that capsaicin, an appetite suppressant dietary supplement (here, administered via intraduodenal infusion), does not act via alteration of secretion of satiety hormones GLP-1 (GLP-1) and PYY (peptide YY). PMID: 26718419
    42. Data show that NCI-H716 cells were immunostained for tumor necrosis factor receptor TNFR1, and TNFalpha treatment enhances glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. PMID: 26270730
    43. active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates cholecystokinin production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cyclic AMP and CREB. PMID: 25984632
    44. Data suggest that secretion of insulin and glucagon is up-regulated in subjects with type 2 diabetes with dyssomnia as compared to subjects with type 2 diabetes without dyssomnia; those with dyssomnia exhibit prehypertension and insulin resistance. PMID: 25957006
    45. no association of single nucleotide polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility in Chinese population PMID: 25863010
    46. Data suggest plasma GLP1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and PYY (peptide YY) can be regulated by digestion-resistant diet factors; intake of soluble dietary fiber (prebiotic Fibersol-2) in a tea with meal up-regulated plasma GLP1/PYY and decreased hunger. PMID: 25823991
    47. Glucagon has emerged as a key hormone for the regulation of glucose homeostasis and for development of type 2 diabetes. [Review] PMID: 25814364
    48. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na(+)-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores PMID: 26571400
    49. The actions of GLP-2 are transduced by the GLP-2 receptor [GLP-2R], which is localized in the neurons of the enteric nervous system but not in the intestinal epithelium. PMID: 25218018
    50. GLP-1 increases PGC-1(alpha) expression by downregulating miR-23a in liver cells. PMID: 26315270



  • 亚细胞定位:
  • 蛋白家族:
    Glucagon family
  • 组织特异性:
    Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.
  • 数据库链接:

    HGNC: 4191

    OMIM: 138030

    KEGG: hsa:2641

    STRING: 9606.ENSP00000387662

    UniGene: Hs.516494